Skip to main content

Algis Budrys papers

Call Number: MS 112


Collection comprising typescript draft (with manuscript corrections) for Algys Budrys's science-fiction novel Who?; two printed editions of the novel; and the painting by Kelly Freas that inspired Budrys's short story "Who?", which Budrys later expanded into a novel.


  • Creation: approximately 1955


Conditions Governing Access

No access restrictions.

Conditions Governing Use

Spencer Library staff may determine use restrictions dependent on the physical condition of manuscript materials.

Biography of Algis Budrys (1931-2008)

Algis "A.J." Budrys was born in East Prussia in 1931 as Algirdas Jonas Budrys. His parents took him to the United States in 1936 when fleeing Nazi expansion. After studying at the University of Miami and Columbia University, Budrys worked briefly as an assistant editor at Gnome Press. In 1952, he made his writing debut with two short stories, which appeared in Astounding and Space Science Fiction.

Budrys' early novels included False Night (1954) and Who? (first published in 1958). The latter novel is about American scientist Lucas Martino, who is maimed in a laboratory accident and falls into Russian hands, his body rebuilt and his face hidden by a mask.

Budrys returned to editorial work in the later 1950s and 1960s; he also wrote book reviews for Galaxy and Fantasy and Science Fiction. Budrys also published the magazine Tomorrow, initially with Dean Wesley Smith, which had a print run of 24 issues until 1997 and continued online until 2000.

Biography of Frank Kelly Freas (1922-2005)

Frank Kelly added the last name Freas after his stepfather adopted him, and he was often known professionally as Kelly Freas. A self-trained artist, after serving in World War II, Freas submitted a sample of his work to the science fiction magazine Weird Tales, which led to his first assignment creating the magazine's November 1950 cover.

Over the following decades, Freas painted hundreds of covers for several scifi magazines and many book publishers. He also painted for publications outside the scifi genre, including for Mad Magazine and portraits for The Franciscan Book of Saints (1959).

Freas won the Hugo Award for Best Professional Artist 10 times between the years 1955-1976, in addition to other awards and accolades. After his death in 2005 he was inducted into the Science Fiction Hall of Fame.


.25 Linear Feet (1 document case + 1 oversize folder)

Language of Materials


Physical Location

MS 112

Physical Location

MS Q3:1

Immediate Source of Acquisition

Purchase, E.P. Goldschmidt & Company (J.L. Vellekoop), 1971.

Guide to the Algis Budrys Collection
Algis Budrys papers
Finding aid prepared by alh, 1972. Finding aid encoded by mwh, 2020.
Description rules
Describing Archives: A Content Standard
Language of description
Finding aid written in English.
Finding aid permalink
Preferred citation
Algis Budrys papers, MS 112, Kenneth Spencer Research Library, University of Kansas

Repository Details

Part of the University of Kansas. Kenneth Spencer Research Library Repository

1450 Poplar Lane
Lawrence KS 66045-7616 United States